No, Not, and None

1. NO and NONE

We use NO + noun.

Examples:

    • She had no shoes on.

    • No information was given about how the research was conducted.

    • There is no train until tomorrow.

 

We use NONE without any noun after it.

Example:

    • Have we got any more sugar? — There’s none in the kitchen.

    • How many children have you got? — None.

 

We use NO or NONE (OF) instead of NOT A or NOT ANY to emphasize the negative idea in a sentence.

Compare these sentences:

 

Less emphatic:

    • There isn’t a key for this door.

    • She didn’t give me any help at all.

 

More emphatic:

    • There’s no key for this door.

    • She gave no help at all.

 

We use NO or NONE (OF) but we can’t use NOT ANY in initial position in a clause or sentence.

Examples:

    • No force was needed to make them move. (not: Not any force was needed…)

    • None of the children was awake. (not: Not any of children…)

 

2. NOT A

We use NOT A in a formal or literary style we can use not a in initial position in a clause or sentence.

Examples:

    • Not a word would she say about the robbery.

    • Not a sound came from the classroom.

 

3. NO

After NO, we use a singular noun in situations where we would expect one of something, and a plural noun where we would expect more than one.

Examples:

    • There were no biscuits left.

    • He seems very lonely at school, and has no friends.

NOTE: Sometimes we can use either a singular or plural noun with little difference in meaning.

Examples:

    • No answer (or answers) could be found.

    • We want to go to the island but there’s no boat (or no boats) to take us.

 

4. NONE OF

We can use NONE OF with a plural noun and the verb can be either singular or plural, although the singular form is usually more formal.

Examples:

    • None of the children were awake. (or: None of the children was awake.)

    • None of the letters have arrived yet. (or: None of the letters has arrived yet.)

 

NOTE: However, when we use none with an uncountable noun the verb must be singular.

Examples:

    • None of the water was kept in the jar.

    • None of the money has been transferred to his account.

 

 

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s