Plural Nouns

 

Pay attention to these rules:

1. If “o” is preceded by the vocal sound, add “-s” directly to the noun.

• radio – radios

• ratio – ratios

“o” is preceded by “o” (the vocal)

• zoo – zoos

 

2. If “o” is preceded by the consonant sound, add “-es” to the noun.

• echo – echoes

“o” is preceded by “h” (the consonant)

• torpedo – torpedoes

• potato – potatoes

• tomato – tomatoes

 

 

Plural Nouns – Rule #4

For most nouns that end in “-f” or “-fe” are formed by changing the “-f” or “-fe” to “v” then add “-es”.

• knife – knives

• life – lives

• half – halves

• midwife – midwives

 

However, some nouns that end in “-f” are formed by only adding “-s”.

• chief – chiefs

• gulf – gulfs

• cliff – cliffs

• Sheriff – sheriffs

 

Plural Nouns – Rule #5

Certain nouns have an identical singular and plural form. Some of these nouns end in -s: means, series, species.

Examples:

• The bicycle is a means of transport.

• The five human senses are our means of communication with the material world.

 

• A series of burglaries has been going on around the neighbourhood.

• What are your favourite TV series?

 

• A new species of bird has been discovered in Indonesia recently.

• Since the 17th century, more than 500 marine species have become extinct in the US.

 

Other examples are:

• advice

• aircraft

• aluminum

• archives

• binoculars

• bison

• chalk

• concrete

• correspondence

• counsel

• deer

• education

• elk

• eyeglasses

• fish

• food

• furniture

• headquarters

• information

• knowledge

• mankind

• moose

• news

• offspring

• oxygen

• pajamas

• pants

• pike

• police

• reindeer

• salmon

• scissors

• series

• sheep

• shorts

• species

• steel

• swine

• tongs

• trout

• tweezers

• wheat

• wood

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