There are many prefixes and suffixes in English. What I posted here is just a few of them. You might need to consult your dictionary to know other kinds of prefixes and suffixes.
If you put a certain prefix to a root word, it will change the meaning of the word. For example, if you put the prefix in- before the root word ‘active’, it means not active.
To change the function of the root word, just add a suffix at the end of the word. For example, if you place the suffix -er at the end of the verb ‘compute’, so now it becomes ‘computer’ and functions as a noun.
The following prefixes mean ‘not’ – the opposite of the root word:
un- : unnatural
dis- : disagree
im- : immoral
in- : inactive
il- : illegal
ir- : irregular
non- : non-living
The prefix re- means ‘again’
The prefix bi- means ‘having two’
bicycle (having two wheels)
bilingual (having two languages)
The prefix di- means ‘twice’ or ‘double’
The prefix co- means ‘jointly’ or ‘equally’
The prefix ex- means ‘out’, ‘out of’ or ‘out from’ also ‘former’
The following suffixes are used to form nouns:
-ness : togetherness
-ance or -ence : disturbance difference
-ment : development
-ion : generation
-er or -or : banker, editor
The suffix -ly is used to form adverbs of manner
The suffix -ous is used to form adjectives
Check out this video from cambridgeenglishtv.